.

Fig. 15: Terraced house, built in 1956, prior to refurbishment.
© Lichtblau Architekten

Fig. 16: Solar collectors are integrated across the entire south elevation.
© Lichtblau Architekten

Fig. 17: Detail of the south-facing thermal envelope with section through a window.
© Lichtblau Architekten

Fig. 18: South elevation.
© Lichtblau Architekten

Fig. 19: The thermographic image shows the good thermal insulation in comparison with the neighbouring building. The high-resolution thermal image even shows the vertical timber battens between the elements and the horizontal metal rails in the facade.
© ZAE Bayern
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In practiceI: Refurbishment and new-build prototypes

Vacuum insulation offered many advantages with the energy-oriented refurbishment of this mid-terrace house (approaching the passive house standard). Especially with terraced houses, retrofitted, thick external insulation causes geometric, structural and visual problems in terms of the stepped joints to the unrefurbished adjoining homes. Here the use of thin, supplementary insulation with VIPs in the roof slopes enabled the roof height and the short, continuous roof overhang to be maintained. The exterior wallswere clad with a 9-cm-thick outer skin consisting of VIPs integrated between timber battens and newwindows that open to the outside. The use of VIPs also provides efficient thermal insulation for the low basement ceiling. The problem of thermal bridging created by the party walls to the neighbouring homes was successfully solved by inserting VIP elements into 25-cm-deep vertical channels.

For the prototypical, new-build design for the double-family house, the structural design and the insulation with VIPs ensure a passive house standard with an extremely slim appearance. The facade of the two-storey, prefabricated solid timber structure consists of Swedish red spruce cladding on top of a VIP substructure, with solar collectors integrated under prismatic glass on the south elevation. In addition to the external wall, vacuum insulation is also used in the monopitch roof above the upper storey and in the exterior doors. Particularly the consistently designed timber structure as well as the high quality, separable materials have ensured an ecological, functional and economically optimised overall result. The slim wall structures create 15 m² of additional living space.

In both projects it is possible to replace aerated VIP elements at any time. The installation between the timber battens and metal rails enabled standardised element sizes and simplified assembly. The unprotected VIPs were installed in the respective substructure without any problems using compriband sealant tape along the edges. However, when these prototype buildings were constructed in the year 2000, there were still considerable but solvable problems with the delivery conditions and the quality assurance.

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